Category Archives: Issues in Society

Learning about creating change in our society with examinations of important issues that are/may be viewed as irrelevant by government.

Why Incite Domestic Genocide?

state genocide, united nations, human rights violations
why incite domestic genocide?

Laws are created to govern human behavior and enforced through institutions, such as law enforcement and judicial offices, to maintain peace and order. These laws are rules and guidelines designed by government or evolve as precedents by Judges. What about laws created by governments to specifically ‘target’ citizens or groups, for political or financial gain? Who now protects these citizens from their own government?

Rafal (Raphael) Lemkin had visited war torn nations where acts of genocide had been committed. He was the first to coin the Greek-Latin term ‘genocide’: ‘geno’ translated means ‘race, people’ and ‘cide’ in latin, means ‘to kill’. His experience with ‘group exterminations‘ led to writing his book, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Mr Lemkin would help orchestrate the introduction of the draft resolution for the ‘Genocide Convention’ treaty’, with support from the USA, to the United Nations, which was adopted December 9, 1951. It has withstood time and referenced for major cases of genocide.

The Genocide Convention did not fully accept ALL recommendations of Mr. Lemkins draft. He had tried to include ‘non-physical‘ aspects which referred to the ‘pschological‘ effects from acts of genocide that wasn’t related to outright murder. This referred to acts such as ‘ a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.

Genocide is directed against the national group as an entity, and the actions involved are directed against individuals, not in their individual capacity, but as members of the national group’ and he also includes, “Genocide has two phases: one, destruction of the national pattern of the oppressed group; the other, the imposition of the national pattern of the oppressor. This imposition, in turn, may be made upon the oppressed population which is allowed to remain or upon the territory alone, after removal of the population and the colonization by the oppressor’s own nationals.”

Mr. Lemkin believed that acts of genocide required ‘techniques‘ that would affect a people as a whole, such as the Russian genocide. Ukrainians died and suffered during a deliberate ‘famine‘ consequently wiping out five million Ukranians and ‘Ukranian Nationalism‘. Lemkin considered this as wiping out a culture and nation. He stated how techniques could be used in other areas, to diminish a groups’ politics, social, cultural, economic, biological, physical self (endangering health, mass killing, religious) and/or their moral beliefs.

Two scholars from Canada, Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn, would also draw their own observations on the subtle motives and characteristics of genocidal acts, categorized in the following;

Ideological, creating a society to hold ONE belief, race and culture
Retributive, steps are taken to eliminate real or imagined threats. Dominant group is in fear of rebels and/or outright rebellion.
Developmental, steps are taken by a dominant group, for economic gain.
Despotic, terror is spread against real or imagined threats.

The United Nations is considered one of mankind’s great achievements. It was set up to encourage governments from around the world to work together to keep world peace next to advancing economic partnerships, international laws, security, social progress, a podium for nation-to-nation discussions and protect human rights, on a global scale. It is an institution that has fantastic ideals but in reality, has become considered impotent, an office only for ‘prestige’ and offers NO true protection.

Domestic genocide (Kuper, 1985) is a problem that’s been found to exist yet remains un-addressed. It refers to ‘acts of genocide committed within a state by citizens of the state‘. Prosecutions for this particular act(s) of genocide are ignored therefore begs the question, should those in knowledge , giving permission, be considered as ‘complicit‘, to the various forms of genocide being enacted? A definition of complicity is, a ‘partnership, or one is privy, criminal participance‘.

Atrocities have been committed and continue in this day and age (Rwanda, Darfur, Kurds,etc). Acts and violations against others, have evolved, are practiced and explained (excused?)  away but are the very forms of genocide, that are NOT included, in the Genocide Convention. What has gone wrong?

Why allow citizens to hate on their fellow citizens regardless of gender, culture, ethnicity, race, belief, etc.? It seems to only grow, when there’s silence from government or protective laws don’t exist. It’s a good step towards letting a nation tear itself apart and government to herald in, stricter laws for ‘reactions‘ of victims vs ‘behaviors’ of the abuser. Do you see anything wrong with this system?

Criminal studies have documented that criminals look for ‘avenues of ample opportunity‘, to commit or hide their crimes. They are opportunistic and predatory therefore prey on those considered ‘weak‘. So, when people with criminal behaviors enter government offices, and start creating legislated hardships, on a specified citizenry, where are the people expected to turn for help, especially if a war, would literally, annihilate them? Or they’re threatened with loss of freedoms (prison), when their acts are not criminal or harmful towards others?

The Genocide Convention should create an ‘Addendum‘ to include the ‘psychological‘ and ‘subtler‘ acts of genocide, found, seen, experienced and recommended by Mr. Lemkin, Mr, Chalk and Mr. Jonassohn but a few obstacles, in the areas of immunity, jurisdiction, extradition, and definition, have prevented prosecution of these crimes. If members of the UN agree to uphold UN conventions within their own nations, it should be assumed, they shall adjust their own nations’ laws accordingly, to follow a new ‘addendum‘ of the UN. Leaders want their people and others, accountable but they too, should return the favor, and be accountable to the People.

A major obstacle has been providing a ‘precise‘ definition of genocide. Many reports and studies have been provided but no decision made as to specifying the term. It must include both the ‘intent to destroymotive of the perpetrator as well as the ‘group characteristic’ of the victims. Meanwhile, studies and reports about the many forms of motives and characteristics have been provided! Incessant arguments about accepting and settling upon a final decision, on the definition of genocide, continues to leave many victims helpless to attacks and extreme lack of legal recourse. What could ‘criminals‘ do, sitting in as UN members?

A few nations have listened to their citizenry over the years and enacted laws considered beneficial for society, as a whole. New criminal laws and punishments are created and continue to evolve due to technological advances, and arising new crimes. This too, should be a goal of the United Nations, EVOLVE into a better institution with updating their own laws, especially in the area of criminal laws. Paying attention to new and questioning rescinded protective laws, of developed nations, could help develop inspiration towards their own law creation and updates.

A need to build a better mousetrap, seems always ongoing but there’s no such thing as ‘perfect’. Laws evolve with society, some good, some not but they are not written in stone. There’s always room to change and adjust as time goes by, but help from the United Nations, in keeping with their mandate, should always be immediately available to the oppressed. Where have you seen acts of domestic genocide?

Knowledge in Action

Related Reading

Genocide Watch

Convention on Prevention and Punishment of Genocide

The Genocide Education Project

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your thoughts. Use the contact form to send me a email, if you have a request for a topic of your interest, would like a guest post, or to just say Hello!

Article(C)2012, all rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and social issues.

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Dwindling Economics and Racism

chasing money away
chasing money away

The pride and practice of racism which refers to a ‘prejudice or discrimination against a person or group because of a difference in race or ethnicity‘ hurts people but can also hurt one’s surrounding economy. What would an influx of money do for your community?

 So, what does an influx mean? It’s defined as ‘ a steady stream or flow‘. Can you imagine having people arrive daily, year round to or near, your community, spending money because there’s something special about your particular area that attracts them? It’s called ‘tourism‘ and is a beneficial industry for one’s community and nation too. Tourists come from all over the land and from other lands around the globe.

A tourist will have money to spend on expenses for travel, food, shelter, gifts for themselves and family. This money helps build the ‘services‘ so one can cater to the travelling tourist. A hotel for shelter, restaurants for food, vending machines for snacks, gas stations for vehicles and recreational vehicles, a park for RV’s and/or camping, a market full of locally made gifts, to name a few services. These businesses don’t just pop out of nowhere for no reason but having them, creates their own ‘needs‘ and jobs are posted. A win-win for business and the local people.

 Now back to the opening of this topic about racism and what’s the point? Well, practicing racism has a certain attitude. One may think they’re hiding it but no, it’s there. A stranger in town may not quite be able to put their finger on what’s wrong but their intuition says, ‘danger‘ and leaving quickly is their goal. They are uncomfortable and will seek ‘shelter‘ of a different sort, like, maybe police protection and leave town by sunset. Would this be a good goal for a community hoping to better their economy?

 The idea of tourists flocking to your community with their wallets at hand vs the tourist running out of town, as fast as possible, with their wallets. Which one would be preferable? Personal safety must be taken into consideration for a successful tourist destination, business or industry, to thrive. Practicing open racism and/or unhealthy attitudes towards ‘strangers‘ sends the message loud and clear ‘you’re not welcome‘ here. This in effect will quickly shut down efforts to bring new money, into your community.

 A loss of money will have a trickling effect on the community as a whole. Your local businesses that are part of the ‘hospitality‘ industry which caters to the ‘tourism‘ industry will be forced to downsize and may eventually close. People will lose jobs and financial security because there is no ‘influx‘ of money since the local businesses, have no customers. Do we really want to chase ‘tourists‘ out of town?

Sociologists state that people are not born human but only do so, through interaction with others. The process of social interaction aka ‘socialization’ helps the ordinary human being learn and acquire the knowledge, attitudes, values and behaviors to function, live and contribute positively, or negatively, to society. In effect, a being who may readily contribute positively or negatively, to their community hospitality and tourism industries. Hospitality and tourism is a ‘people‘ industry that requires one to genuinely enjoy interacting with people. Is racism good for the economy?

Where does racism come from? It could be viewed as the capacity of how one has ‘evolved‘ or to not have, as a human. Others will say it’s an ‘expression‘ of fear. Neuroscience speaks of the Male Warrior Hypothesis ” which states that a ‘GROUP aggression by males is a persistent trait of behavior and is not commonly found in women. These types of behaviors can be found displayed in groups of chimpanzee’s yet, again, not as much with the females, in that group’.

The success of planning or building a tourist based industry in our communities can be affected by poor attitudes and behaviors. I’m not sure one would want others to see, or feel, threat of violence against or done on others, when they’re visiting. It leaves an extremely poor image and reputation for the community as a whole. We know how ‘gossip‘ can be quite ‘viral’  especially with today’s technologies. ‘Word of mouth’ is considered one of many popular ‘advertising‘ mediums. So, what would you want people to say about your community?

Thankfully, humans do have the ability to ‘transcend’ in their behaviors but it is a personal ‘choice‘. We cannot force racist attitudes to disappear and some would say, ‘unfortunately, every village got to have an idiot’. One common finding with researchers that is shared, believe that ending racism must begin with the government. Applying protections and consequences can help towards changing ‘open and hostile‘ acts and practices of racism. This won’t work though if the government, whether openly or subtly, practices and perpetuates racism themselves. What would you want to see for your nation?

Learning in Action

Extra Reading

Implicit Association Test

Types of Racism

Is Racism an Illness?

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your thoughts. Send me a email if you have a request on a topic of interest or to say hello using the ‘Contact Form’. Have a great day!

Article(C)2013, all rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, home business, health, science, technology and society. ‘Life should be interesting, never mind the boring’.

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Pope Alexander IV and Inter Caetera Divinai

aprchmtpprBHistory writes that Columbus ‘discovered’ the Americas and the Indigenous peoples while in search for treasures for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, of Spain. Spain was part of the ‘mercantile‘ empires and strived for profit to the nation, moreso than settlement. They would gain control of mainland South America and also have colonies, in North America located in Florida, Mexico and California.

Upon this ‘discovery’ of the America’s, other European nations questioned Spain and the legalities, to make such claims of the America’s, due to the ‘potential‘ resources that would fall into control of Spain. A common practice in Europe, in regards to ‘discoveries of lands and resources’ was to seek out the advice of the Pope and have ‘Papal Bulls‘ awarding the state, these new lands.

Pope Alexander IV was the reigning head of Church in Spain. He is considered one of the most corrupt Popes yet admired for his diplomatic, political and administrative skills, for avoiding outright wars against the Church. As a graduate in law and rise through the ranks of Church, thanks to familial ties, along with gaining influence amongst his peers, he would learn to balance and take full advantage, of building the power base of his family, The Borgia’s, with his papal position.

The year of 1455, Pope Nicholas V had issued a Papal Bull called the ‘Romanus Pontifex‘ to Portugal, which awarded permissions to conquer and claim lands of Indigenous peoples NOT subjects of European Christian monarchs. Following this precedent, Pope Alexander IV met with lawyers and provided the Spanish monarchy, May 4, 1493, with their own Papal Bull, the Inter Caetera Divinai, which would declare the following:

The Pope could place non-Christian peoples under the tutelage and guardianship of the first Christian nation discovering their lands as long as those peoples were reported by the discovering Christian nation to be ‘well disposed to embrace the Christian faith‘.  ~ (‘Our Elders Understand Our Rights’, by Sharon Helen Venne)

The Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, would lay the foundations, and be applied to all Indigenous peoples, for the next 500 + years. It would be followed by many European nations to treat the Indigenous peoples, as ‘objects’ rather than as human beings. This papal bull would justify the rationale, that non-Christians could not own lands when faced with Christian sovereigns.

European colonizers would relocate, displace and strip lands from the Indigenous peoples and deny them rights, to govern themselves. It would become the ‘Doctrine of Discovery’ which would prevent recognition of the Indigenous peoples as ‘Nations’ and be used to make ‘racist laws’, such as a few of the following, practiced in the United States:

  • Fugitive Slave Law, 1793
  • Indian Removal Act, 1830
  • Slavery, 1500- 1865
  • Suppression of Native American Indian Religion, repealed 1978
  • Anti-Coolie Act, 1862
  • Residential Schools System, 1879-1900
  • Jim Crow Laws, 1876-1965
  • Lynching, 1700-1960

Canada would also enact laws, that were not favorable for their Indigenous peoples and can be found under the Indian Act (IA), 1876, but other laws were also created, to control immigration of the Chinese. They would get some relief after their support in WWII. Canadian Aboriginals would continue to suffer with laws designed to continue removing lands and rights even after they had also served in WWII. A few of these laws are as follows:

  • 1881, prohits the sale of agricultural produce by Aboriginals in the Prairie provinces without a permit from an Indian agent. As of 2008, this law still stands in the Indian Act though it’s not enforced.
  • 1885, IA is amended to prevent potlatches and religious ceremonies
  • 1911, IA is amended to allow municipalities and companies to expropriate portions of reserves, without surrender, for roads, railways and other public works. Further amended to allow a Judge to move an entire reserve away from a municipality if it was deemed ‘expedient’. Also known as the ‘Oliver Act’.
  • 1927, IA is amended to prevent anyone, Aboriginal or otherwise, from soliciting funds for Indian legal claims without a special license from the Superintendent-General. It would stop any First Nation from pursuing a land claim.

Today, the Doctrine of Discovery (adopted in 1823, and) remains part of US laws, as implemented in the Johnson v. McIntosh or the recent Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation (2005) court decisions. Efforts, by Aboriginals in both USA and Canada along with the Episcopal Church (US and Canada), have been made to request the Pope and Queen of Britain, to revoke the Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, but recieve no co-operation. It has been considered ‘not juridically valid‘ but remains in existence therefore still endangering Indigenous peoples around the world.

Society is said to be continuously evolving for a better world. This can be seen with the co-operation between nations (United Nations) and use of diplomacy along with a rise of human rights. Yet, this particular document, the Inter Caetera Divinai, continues to allow, for continued acts of atrocities and inhumanity, against Indigenous Peoples, right in their own homelands, globally. Do you believe that God blesses those who commit crimes against others?

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Extra Reading

Timeline of Efforts/Remove Papal Bulls

Keep Tabs on Parliament

Native American Encyclopedia, USA

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your own observations or experiences. Use the ‘Contact’ form to make a request on a topic of your own interest. It is FREE to subscribe by email or RSS feed.

Article(C)2009 An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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