Category Archives: Diet and Exercise

Exploring importance of maintaining personal and family health in today’s society.

11 Facts about In Vitro Fertilisation

infertility treatment, 10 facts about IVF, in vitro fertilisation, medically assisted reproduction treatment, infertility
Tiny baby feet

Infertility affects couples around the globe with the inability to produce their own genetic offspring. Factors that can affect conception to occur for males can be, low/no sperm, malformed sperm, short life sperm, spermatic tube blockage, undeveloped or damaged testes, from STD and/or trauma, or genetic disease.

Women may face anovulation (failure to ovulate) due to stress, hormonal imbalance, tumor, cyst, ovary disorder, obstructed fallopian tubes, pelvic endometriosis, poor embryo implantation. It’s estimated that 40% of couples are affected with infertility cases.

The use of ‘in vitro fertilisation’ techniques are one of the treatments offered to help. A few facts about this treatment are:

  1. Dr Edwards, Embryologist, develops human culture media for embryo fertilisation aka the ‘petri dish’ and partners with Dr. Steptoe, Gynecologist, who develops the method of using laparoscopy to implant embryos.
  2. Hostility and criticism was endured by both pioneers, from their peers, government, religious sectors as saying that IVF was creating ‘Frankenbabies’.
  3. Lesley Brown volunteers to undergo the IVF technique and succeeds in conception, declared officially pregnant.
  4. The birth is attended by government officials to document the baby is truly Lesley Brown’s child.
  5. July 1978, England, is the first to announce successful birth of a ‘test tube baby’ with no defects or abnormalities.
  6. IVF treatment availability comes with strict regulations such as specific age, diet, number of embryo transfers and weight next to differing costs.
  7. Medical tourism provides couples to opt for lower cost and regulations, of IVF treatment, in developing nations vs developed nations.
  8. Research today, is exploring how embryos attach to the lining of the womb when implanted thus possibly answering why the IVF cycle can prove unsuccessful.
  9. A high incidence of miscarriages with IVF treatment are common. Studies have shown miscarriages occur due Aneuploidy, abnormal numbers of chromosomes.
  1. Stem cell research has succeeded in creation of viable offspring in animals but no reports of live human births from artificial gametes has been recorded yet.
  1. Research has shown that approximately 50% of Western men have decreased sperm counts.

Investigating the underlying causes of infertility are performed for both partners. This may require sensitive and specialised tests to determine if infertility is due to one or both partners. Mutual immunological incompatibility may be suspect and exposure to pollutants is also another consideration.

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments or share with your Friends. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form and request a topic of your own interest for the next Post.

Learning in Action

Learning Resources

Five most common causes of infertility

Insurance Coverage for Infertility Treatment PDF

Miscarriage

Article(C)2016 An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us. She is also a VEA available for Hire 🙂

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Chutes, Gravity and Drag

parachute BASE jumping, extreme sports, science, education
Bear sporting Chute jump

A field of science in Phyics states, in Newton’s First law: “An object will stay at rest or continue at constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force”. So, how do these forces make skydiving, with a parachute, so popular?

No matter what mass an object is falling towards the Earth, science has found that they will fall at the same rate, if no resistance exists, and land at the same time. Calculations is done with use of the equations involving force, mass, and acceleration. Studies have shown that acceleration remains constant, for all matter with mass. This formula shows the most basic equation:

F=mg

The breakdown of this equation refers to the following:

F = force, objects being pulled to the Earth
m = mass of the object
g = acceleration rate due to gravity(g = 9.807 meters per second-squared (m/s2) )

Following mathematical rules will have us write out this formula as:

F= m x g

The use of this formula can get far more complex depending on which area of science, one is using it, such as in aeronautics, space sciences, engineering, etc.

The world of skydiving is a popular sport even though it can be a risk to one’s life. Not many can understand ‘why jump from a perfectly good plane?’ but there are enthusiasts who love the extreme sport of skydiving or BASE jumping- sports requiring one to jump from a plane or off a fixed object (cliff). These are considered extreme sports and may require a fair investment of funds in gear and equipment since rental for a plane may not be anything to sneeze about.

On topic, the meeting and creation of forces, involved with deploying a parachute. A person will jump out of a plane and find themselves falling through the skies, gaining speed along the way, since ‘a force of attraction exists between any two objects that have mass and the more mass they have, the greater the force of attraction. The closer they are, the greater the force of attraction will occur‘. I will hazard a guess that this particular stimulus creates a thrilling excitement not found in other sports, such as volley ball.

A parachute is deployed, and the chute creates a surface area, which slows the descent or rate of acceleration. This surface area creates ‘air resistance or drag force‘. The larger the surface area, the slower the descent. This ‘resistance or drag force’ creates a force that’s opposite to the force of gravity therefore creating a ‘push and pull’ force that are nearly equal.

The timing of deploying a parachute is important to note aka ‘pull altitude’. This is due to a shrinking drag force. As one slows down, the drag force gets smaller even if the surface area of air resistance, is larger than one’s weight. Also important is speed of the chute itself opening, therefore a deploying sequence with equipment is used, to prevent injuries, death or damage to the parachute. This helps to slow deployment of the main ‘canopy’ along with maintaining a tangle-free ‘chute opening’. Most skydivers will jump at about 12,500 feet above ground level, allowing for one minute of ‘free falling’ before deploying their parachute, a minimum of 2000-2500 feet for the more experienced.

The gear and equipment for skydivers and BASE jumpers are NOT the same. BASE jumper gear is designed to deploy quicker and at slower air speeds. BASE jumpers do not have ‘reserve’ chutes either as the skydivers equipment does. The science involved in these sports may be the same but both are definitely activities, not for the ‘faint hearted’. Is this where I say being a sports spectator is safe?

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your thoughts or share this article. Send me  an Email if you have a request on a topic of your interest, a guest post or to say Hello!

Learning in Motion

Extra Reading

Gravity Equations Formulas Calculator

http://www.ajdesigner.com/phpgravity/newtons_law_gravity_equation_force.php

Skydiving: How high is too high? How low is too low?

http://www.fabulousrocketeers.com/Photo_See_Ya.htm

United States Parachute Association

http://www.uspa.org/

 

Copyright Article (C) 2014, all Rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and advocates on social issues.

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Heart Lesson – Torsades de Pointes

heart waves arrythmia
heart waves arrythmia

A healthy heart as we know is a pump that delivers oxygenated and deoxygenated blood for our bodies to survive. It can contract up to 2.5 billion times during a person’s average life. We recognize the heart as one of the most major organs since without it, there’s no life. Unfortunately, one can be born or acquire ailments that affect our heart, such as ‘Torsades de Pointes‘.

 Torsades de pointes refers to a dangerous arrhythmia of the heart, if not diagnosed or treated correctly and still somewhat, difficult to identify. Studies have revealed common characteristics of this condition for improved care and treatment depending on which variation exists. These variations refer to congenital or acquired torsades. Inherited Torsades is due to an inability for ‘ion channels‘ to correctly carry the electrical action/impulse of the heart and acquired version refers to drugs triggering Torsades due to ‘blocking‘ these ion currents. Ion channels describes the flow and rate of electrolytes, sodium and potassium in the heart.

Torsades in action has the heart in a state of ‘polymorphic ventricular tachycardia’. This refers to the heart rate increasing to 150 beats per minute (bpm) and up to 250 bpm. A normal heart rate is anywhere from 60 to 100 bpm. Athletes can have lower heart rates than 60 bmp. This abnormal heart rate will ‘spontaneously‘ return to a normal beat but can recur and/or progress into ‘ventricular fibrillation ‘(VF) symptoms which can lead to death, if it persists. It is this ‘return to normal‘ action that has made identifying Torsades difficult.

LQTS heart beat wave patterns
LQTS heart beat wave patterns

Research and studies have shown that people with Torsades have their beginnings with ‘fainting‘ due to a drop in blood pressure causing dizziness . Use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) have revealed a ‘long QT interval’ and another term, ‘Long QT Syndrome‘ (LQTS). A recording of the heart rate may not reveal Torsades in action but definitely that ‘long QT’ or ‘short variant‘ characteristics of Torsades, help provide clues for physicians and health care professionals.

An ECG showing Torsades in action displays an illusion of a swirled rotation (like a ballet dancers’ pirhouette hence it’s name) on it’s electrical axis, a long and short RR – interval precedes the arrhythmia and follows a premature ventricular contraction (R-on-T PVC). Other symptoms reported are palpitations, rapid pulse, nausea, cold sweats, lightheadedness (short episode) and outright fainting.

Torsades is usually found in people that are malnourished, chronic alcoholics, or with hypokalemia (abnormally low pottasium), diarrhea, and/or hypomagnesemia (abnormally low magnesium), heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy (enlarged left ventricle), bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypothermia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is these symptoms and existing disorders that are critical for a physician or health care team to be aware and identify quickly especially with medications, known to trigger Torsades.

Torsades can be found in many age groups. When identified in children, it is usually congenital and may accompany disorders such as Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, Romano-Ward syndrome and triggered by effects of stress, fear or physical exertion (usually prohibited from competitive sports), whearas in adult years, it is considered acquired. Electrolyte disorders are usually the cause of acquired Torsades and treatable with correcting the imbalance and/or removal of triggering medications.

Treatment for Torsades is available and it’s known there are six different variants of Torsades. Effective treatment will depend on identifying the specific ‘genotype‘ which identifies whether it’s  sodium or potassium channels that are affected.  A family physician may refer their client to a cardiologist, electrophysiologist, or geneticist. Again, failure to identify Torsades has been due to it’s ‘return to normal’ activities and complications of persistent ‘ventricular fibrillations‘ that arise.

 The existence of Torsades has been known and further studies at the molecular and cellular levels have provided leaps forward in better care and treatment. The ‘prevalence‘ of Torsades in the general population is an unknown. Could this be a cause of death for the homeless, mentally or medically challenged people, that have occurred when getting tasered by police?

Action of Learning

Extra Reading

 Drugs with Risk of Torsades de Pointes

 My Majors

 Living with Heart Rhythms

 I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your thoughts. Send me a email if you have a request on a topic of interest or to say hello.

 Article(C)2012, all rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and society.

 

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